Tuberculosis TB wiki – causes | test |symptoms |treatment |prevention
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease, which is usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis usually affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in this case, it is known as latent tuberculosis. Approximately 10% of latent infections progress in active disease, which, if left untreated, kills half of the affected people.
Currently, one-fourth of the world’s population is considered infected with TB. About 1% of people are new infections every year. In 2017, there were more than 10 million active TB cases, resulting in 1.6 million deaths.
This causes death due to an infectious disease. More than 95% of deaths occurred in developing countries and more than 50% of deaths occurred in India, China, Indonesia, Pakistan, and the Philippines.
Since 2000, the number of new cases has decreased every year.
list of symptoms & signs of TB
- tuberculosis can infect any part of the body but mostly occurs in the lungs.
- Known as pulmonary tuberculosis.
- Many of these symptoms are associated with its variants while others are more specific (but not entirely) with other variations
- 5 to 10% of people infected with tuberculosis, who do not have HIV, develop active disease during their lifetime.
- Symptoms may include chest pain and long periods of cough and mucus.
- Approximately 25% of people may not have any symptoms (i.e. they can be “asymptomatic”).
- Occasionally, a small amount of blood can come with coughing of people.
- In very rare cases, the infection can reach the pulmonary artery, which can cause heavy bleeding (Rasmusen aneurysm).
- Tuberculosis is a chronic disease and can cause extensive wounds in the upper part of the lungs.
- Tuberculosis infections in the upper part of the lung are less likely than the lower parts.
- This can be either due to better air flow or due to poor lymph flow within the upper lung.
Other pulmonary tuberculosis
- One potentially more serious, TB is widely known as “spreading” TB, which is also commonly known as Miliary tuberculosis.
- Miliary TB is 10% of other Phufofian cases.
- In 15-20% of active cases, the .infection spreads beyond respiratory organs, which causes other types of TB.
- Collectively these are labeled as “other pulmonary tuberculosis”.
- Other pulmonary TB is more common in individuals with weakened immunity and younger children.
- In people suffering from HIV, this occurs in more than 50% cases.
- Notable other pulmonary infection parts, along with other parts, lung cover (in tuberculosis perfumes), central nervous system (in tuberculosis meningitis),
- lymphatic system (in the neck strom), genital-urinary system (in urogenital tuberculosis) and bones. Joints (in the spinal cord diseases of the spinal cord),
- When it is spread in the bones, it is known as “bony tuberculosis” which is a type of osteoporphic.
causes of Tuberculosis TB
The main cause of tuberculosis is tuberculosis TB mycobacterium, which is a small, aerobic, incomplete bacillus.
High lipid content of this pathogen is responsible for its unique diagnostic characteristics.
It is divided into every 16 to 20 hours, which is significantly slower than other bacteria, which usually divides in less than an hour Are done
The outer membrane of the microbacteria consists of two layers of lipids.
If gram stan tests are done, MTB either creates very weak “Gram-positive” spots or does not keep the dye as the result of the high cell and microlic acid content of your cell wall.
MTBs can resist vulnerable infections and survive for weeks in a dry state.
Many factors make people more sensitive to TB infection. The most important risk factors worldwide are HIV, 13% of all TB cases are infected with this virus.
This is a special problem in Sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are high.
Tuberculosis is associated with both congestion and malnutrition, which make it a major disease of poverty.
High risks include the following: People who take illicit drugs by needle, residents, and employees of such places where sensitive people are collected (such as prison and homeless shelter),
medical deprived and resource-deprived communities, high-risk ethnic groups,
Minority, high-risk category, children in close contact with patients and healthcare providers who provide services to such people.
Old lung disease is another important risk factor – while silicosis increases the risk to 30 times.
People who smoke cigarettes have twice the risk of having TB.
Other diseases may also increase the risk of tuberculosis development such as alcohol consumption  and diabetes (three times the risk increase)
Certain medications such as corticosteroid and infilix (an αTNF anti-monoclonal antibody) are becoming increasingly important risk factors, especially in the developed world
Genetic sensitivity is also a factor whose overall value is still undetermined.
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